Hazardous Waste Materials

Personnel: S. Clester, S. Cullen, L. Everett*, J. Michaelson, L. Wilson (*Agenda coordinator)

Handbook of Vadose Zone Characterization and Monitoring (EPA CR 819690) (Steven J. Cullen)

Vadose zone monitoring is now recognized as a necessary component of a comprehensive subsurface monitoring system. Stephen J. Cullen and Dr. Lorne Everett collaborated with Dr. L.G. Wilson of the University of Arizona to publish a compilation of the state of current knowledge and technologies regarding vadose zone hydrology. The 792 page book published by CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida in January, 1995 includes chapters on basic vadose zone hydrology and prevalent monitoring techniques. Additional chapters address the evolution of environmental regulations, accounting for the phenomenon of preferential flow in monitoring network design, the value of iterative site interpretation based on the use of multiphase, multidimensional fate and transport modeling, and emerging technologies for detecting and measuring subsurface contaminants.

California's Leaking Underground Fuel Tank (LUFT) Cleanup Process (UC Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory #B283614) (Steven J. Cullen)

In July 1994, the California State Water Resources Control Board embarked on a re-evaluation of the technical methodologies employed to characterize the nature and extent of contamination to groundwater caused by subsurface releases of petroleum fuel hydrocarbon. Principal investigator Stephen J. Cullen was asked to support this effort and formed a UCSB team contracted, along with UCLA and UCD, to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to provide interdisciplinary review of the existing LUFT cleanup decision-making process and submit recommendations for improvement. The project also received support from the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX. The purpose of the collaborative research was to evaluate the present regulatory framework of the state and regional water boards and to recommend any revision necessary to streamline site investigation and cleanup process with the ultimate goal of protecting human health and the environment. ICS researchers Lorne G. Everett and Joel Michaelsen contributed to the team evaluation in the areas of groundwater contaminant remediation and statistical techniques for data analysis. The work is currently ongoing with a final report to the State of California Water Resources Control Board expected to be delivered by the end of October, 1995. The technical recommendations which result from this research effort are expected to hold broad ramifications for the management of groundwater throughout the state of California.

An Analysis of Historical Data Related to the Leaking Underground Fuel Tank Releases of Petroleum Hydrocarbons (UC Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory #B283614) (Steven J. Cullen)

A major component of the LUFT re-evaluation effort was an analysis of more than 1,500 existing LUFT releases reported between 1985 and 1995. This LUFT historical case analysis was used to evaluate the FHC plume impacts on groundwater resources, behavior and factors that influence groundwater hydrocarbon plume length and mass, and the adequacy of historically collected site-specific data. The results of this analysis will subsequently be used to develop criteria for determining when remediation is satisfactorily completed, to establish clean-up goals, and to assist in the development of the policies, guidelines and methods that are used to establish those goals. ICS researchers Joel Michaelsen (Department of Geography), Stephen J. Cullen (Principal Investigator, ICS), Lorne Everett (researcher, ICS), and Steven Clester (graduate student, Dept. of Geography) assisted the UC consortium in preparing the data-gathering procedures and database structure, identifying important questions to be asked of the resulting database, performing statistical analysis of the data, and integrating the data analysis results into a final report. While previous research efforts by ICS researchers in hazardous waste have focused on contaminant flow and transport at the laboratory and local field scale, this research is unique because it attempts to consider the fate and transport of hydrocarbons at the scale of the state of California. The approach was to look at empirical evidence of the impact of fuel hydrocarbons on state groundwater. ICS researchers provided oversight in the inspection of regional and state water board case files. Critical site parameters which control groundwater impact as a consequence of anthropogenic petroleum hydrocarbon releases were identified and methodically recorded. The analyses are currently ongoing and a report is expected to be submitted to the State Water Resources Control Board in mid-October, 1995. The results of the historical releases data analysis will, in part, form the basis for evaluating the statewide effort relevant to site characterization and remediation.

Technical Support For Field Investigation Design (Fermco 95PP156958) (Lorne G. Everett)

After the Manhattan project was completed in Chicago (50 years ago), the radioactive contaminated material was moved from Chicago to Fernland and placed in large, vertical, concrete silos. In addition, radioactive waste, from several locations throughout America were deposited at Fernland, Ohio. As a result, a field investigation was required to evaluate contaminant transport through the vadose zone. In addition, a clean site was evaluated for construction of a new radioactive waste disposal area. Dr. Everett was responsible for selecting the field investigation parameters for the silos and making recommendations relative to the proposed monitoring system. In addition, field characterization results associated with the radioactive disposal site were evaluated by Dr. Everett.

United States Navy National Test Site Fuel Hydrocarbon Remediation Program (U. S. Navy IPA A95002) (Lorne G. Everett)

The United States Navy National Test Site Program covering fuel hydrocarbons is located at Port Hueneme, California. The first technology evaluated was a heap bio-pile. Dr. Everett was responsible for identifying the various soil moisture monitoring probes and installing the system in the bio-pile.

The second fuel hydrocarbon remediation program evaluation was related to the German UVB in situ recycling system; the sphere of influence and hydraulics associated with the in situ treatment program were evaluated.

The third hydrocarbon remediation technology demonstrated at Port Hueneme is called the HAVE system. HAVE is an acronym for Hot Air Vapor Extraction system. Dr. Everett was involved in selecting monitoring devices to support the HAVE demonstration. In addition, the evaluation of the remediation temperatures, soil moisture values, soil gas flows, soil temperatures, etc. were evaluated by Dr. Everett in collaboration with the United States Navy National Test Site Team.