Personnel: S. Clester, S. Cullen, L. Everett*, J. Michaelson, L.
Wilson (*Agenda coordinator)
Vadose zone monitoring is now recognized as a necessary component of a
comprehensive subsurface monitoring system. Stephen J. Cullen and Dr.
Lorne Everett collaborated with Dr. L.G. Wilson of the University of
Arizona to publish a compilation of the state of current knowledge and
technologies regarding vadose zone hydrology. The 792 page book published by
CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida in January, 1995 includes chapters on basic
vadose zone hydrology and prevalent monitoring techniques. Additional chapters
address the evolution of environmental regulations, accounting for the
phenomenon of preferential flow in monitoring network design, the value of
iterative site interpretation based on the use of multiphase, multidimensional
fate and transport modeling, and emerging technologies for detecting and
measuring subsurface contaminants.
In July 1994, the California State Water Resources Control Board embarked on a
re-evaluation of the technical methodologies employed to characterize the
nature and extent of contamination to groundwater caused by subsurface
releases of petroleum fuel hydrocarbon. Principal investigator Stephen J.
Cullen was asked to support this effort and formed a UCSB team contracted,
along with UCLA and UCD, to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to
provide interdisciplinary review of the existing LUFT cleanup decision-making
process and submit recommendations for improvement. The project also received
support from the United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region IX. The
purpose of the collaborative research was to evaluate the present regulatory
framework of the state and regional water boards and to recommend any revision
necessary to streamline site investigation and cleanup process with the
ultimate goal of protecting human health and the environment. ICS researchers
Lorne G. Everett and Joel Michaelsen contributed to the team
evaluation in the areas of groundwater contaminant remediation and statistical
techniques for data analysis. The work is currently ongoing with a final report
to the State of California Water Resources Control Board expected to be
delivered by the end of October, 1995. The technical recommendations which
result from this research effort are expected to hold broad ramifications for
the management of groundwater throughout the state of California.
A major component of the LUFT re-evaluation effort was an analysis of more
than 1,500 existing LUFT releases reported between 1985 and 1995. This LUFT
historical case analysis was used to evaluate the FHC plume impacts on
groundwater resources, behavior and factors that influence groundwater
hydrocarbon plume length and mass, and the adequacy of historically collected
site-specific data. The results of this analysis will subsequently be used to
develop criteria for determining when remediation is satisfactorily completed,
to establish clean-up goals, and to assist in the development of the policies,
guidelines and methods that are used to establish those goals. ICS researchers
Joel Michaelsen (Department of Geography), Stephen J.
Cullen (Principal Investigator, ICS), Lorne Everett (researcher,
ICS), and Steven Clester (graduate student, Dept. of Geography)
assisted the UC consortium in preparing the data-gathering procedures and
database structure, identifying important questions to be asked of the
resulting database, performing statistical analysis of the data, and
integrating the data analysis results into a final report. While previous
research efforts by ICS researchers in hazardous waste have focused on
contaminant flow and transport at the laboratory and local field scale, this
research is unique because it attempts to consider the fate and transport of
hydrocarbons at the scale of the state of California. The approach was to look
at empirical evidence of the impact of fuel hydrocarbons on state groundwater.
ICS researchers provided oversight in the inspection of regional and state
water board case files. Critical site parameters which control groundwater
impact as a consequence of anthropogenic petroleum hydrocarbon releases were
identified and methodically recorded. The analyses are currently ongoing and a
report is expected to be submitted to the State Water Resources Control Board
in mid-October, 1995. The results of the historical releases data analysis
will, in part, form the basis for evaluating the statewide effort relevant to
site characterization and remediation.
After the Manhattan project was completed in Chicago (50 years ago), the
radioactive contaminated material was moved from Chicago to Fernland and placed
in large, vertical, concrete silos. In addition, radioactive waste, from
several locations throughout America were deposited at Fernland, Ohio. As a
result, a field investigation was required to evaluate contaminant transport
through the vadose zone. In addition, a clean site was evaluated for
construction of a new radioactive waste disposal area. Dr. Everett was
responsible for selecting the field investigation parameters for the silos and
making recommendations relative to the proposed monitoring system. In
addition, field characterization results associated with the radioactive
disposal site were evaluated by Dr. Everett.
The United States Navy National Test Site Program covering fuel hydrocarbons
is located at Port Hueneme, California. The first technology evaluated was a
heap bio-pile. Dr. Everett was responsible for identifying the various
soil moisture monitoring probes and installing the system in the bio-pile.
The second fuel hydrocarbon remediation program evaluation was related to the
German UVB in situ recycling system; the sphere of influence and
hydraulics associated with the in situ treatment program were
The third hydrocarbon remediation technology demonstrated at Port Hueneme is
called the HAVE system. HAVE is an acronym for Hot Air Vapor Extraction
system. Dr. Everett was involved in selecting monitoring devices to
support the HAVE demonstration. In addition, the evaluation of the remediation
temperatures, soil moisture values, soil gas flows, soil temperatures, etc.
were evaluated by Dr. Everett in collaboration with the United States
Navy National Test Site Team.